Value chain assessments and household surveys were carried out to identify the following main constraints: lack of economies of scale in milk marketing because volumes produced by smallholders are small; inability to access capital to invest in inputs or basic services, let alone to improve productivity; absence of a mechanism to source milk from small pre-commercial producers; feed quality and availability varies greatly between the seasons; and, the threat of marginalization of female value chain actors as the value chain gets upgraded. The value chain assessments also highlighted existence of value chain growth and market opportunities given the high demand for milk.